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With the evidence still uncertain, where to next for interventions for new parents?

The first three years of life have long been recognised as fundamental to a child’s future development, and the role of parents in those early years is widely acknowledged as being critical.

For the new parent, there is an abundance of information on parenting babies both in the popular media and from health and social service agencies.

Yet how much of this is evidence-based and how much do we really know about what interventions work for parents of under threes?  Although there are still many gaps in our knowledge about parenting interventions for older children, these are minor compared to those for parents of babies.

Triple P is a widely known evidenced-based parenting intervention, and while there is support for its effectiveness in the toddler and pre-schooler years (for example, Morawska & Sanders, 2006) and into the primary school years, there is still limited evidence for interventions that target parents of babies.

This is not unique to Triple P. Most parenting programs target older children, and the majority of evidence-based, widely disseminated programs such as Triple P and Incredible Years is for older children.

Addressing the gap

To address this significant gap in supporting parents in the early years of parenting we developed Baby Triple P. Baby Triple P was designed as a comprehensive, preventative, group-based approach to support parents at the transition to parenthood, and targets known risks factors common across the transition (i.e., early parenting confidence and behaviour, parental coping, and supporting the couple relationship).

Our efforts to evaluate the efficacy of Baby Triple P are ongoing but to date findings have been mixed and largely not supportive of the efficacy of the program.

Interestingly, a recently published pre-post trial of Incredible Years Parents and Babies found limited evidence of effectiveness (Jones, Erjavec, Viktor, & Hutchings, 2016). Incredible Years, like Triple P, is based on social learning principles and has a strong evidence base, so it is intriguing that this version of the program has also shown few positive outcomes.

Four randomised controlled trials to date for Baby Triple P (Mihelic, Morawska, & Filus, 2016b; Seah & Morawska, 2016; Spry, 2013; Tsivos, Calam, Sanders, & Wittkowski, 2015) have shown two things: parents really like the intervention and yet report no or very limited change in any of the outcomes assessed. Each of these trials had significant limitations. For example, the sample in Spry (2013) was older, more educated, better off financially and better adjusted than the general population, thus causing ceiling effects on all outcome measures at baseline.

Several large-scale studies are currently ongoing in Australia and Scotland with more high-risk and vulnerable families. These studies will provide more definitive evidence pertaining to longer term effects of Baby Triple P.

Parents clearly like Baby Triple P

What we do know currently, however, is that parents clearly like Baby Triple P and find it highly acceptable, including families with premature babies (Ferrari, Whittingham, Boyd, Sanders, & Colditz, 2011), mothers in a psychiatric unit (Butler, Hare, Walker, Wieck, & Wittkowski, 2014), and mothers suffering from postnatal depression (Tsivos, Calam, Sanders, & Wittkowski, 2015).

Many parents and practitioners continue to ask for the program, often noting that there simply are no available parenting programs for them. One randomised trial even had to be discontinued because parents so desperately wanted the information in the program (Popp & Schneider, 2015).

Parents of babies clearly want evidence-based parenting programs. Practitioners tell us that few options are available and are very keen to know when Baby Triple P will become available.

verticle babyHowever, the research evidence for all parenting interventions targeting new parents suggests that all existing approaches to date have had limited effects.

Systematic reviews of specifically targeted interventions have found limited evidence of positive effects for outcomes such as infant sleep for babies under 6 months of age (Douglas & Hill, 2013).

Our own recent meta-analysis of interventions targeting early infant and parenting behaviours (Mihelic, Morawska, & Filus, 2016a), found only five studies that examined parenting competence and confidence. This means that while parenting skill and their confidence in their own ability as parents are recognised as important (Mihelic, Filus, & Morawska, 2016), few interventions actually aim to help parents enhance these.

A meta-analysis of more than 140 early parenting interventions, starting during pregnancy or the first six-months postpartum, found very small to small intervention effects and only for some outcomes (Pinquart & Teubert, 2010). The authors found that shorter, more targeted interventions, and older studies tended to show stronger effects.

The fact that older studies tend to show larger effect sizes might suggest that parents these days have access to much more information at their fingertips, making it more difficult for modern-day studies to show effects. However, we are still a long way from knowing whether or not this is the case. What we do know that despite this abundance of information, parents still clearly want an intervention such as Baby Triple P.

So where to now for Baby Triple P, a program that has been much anticipated by many people familiar with the Triple P system of programs?

We think the theoretical approach we have taken is sound, and the specific strategies incorporated into Baby Triple P are appropriate, but we have begun rethinking how we design the intervention and how we target delivery to parents with specific needs.

Perhaps we have tried to target too many varied factors within the existing intervention, making the job of detecting the effects on a specific outcome, such as baby crying, too difficult? Our next efforts will involve more targeted interventions, focusing on parents with identified needs.

At the same time, we will continue to work with parents and examine the theoretical literature to determine how best to tailor the program.

Parenting in infancy matters and we need to make sure we design and test effective programs for parents. And although it can be tempting to disseminate a program that parents and practitioners are asking for, Baby Triple P has not yet been disseminated.

We will continue to develop and test interventions for parents of babies in an effort to support those fundamental early days and months of development.

 

Other references:

 

Mihelic, M., Morawska, A., & Filus, A. (2016a). Effects of early parenting interventions on parents and infants: A meta-analytic review. Under review.

Mihelic, M., Morawska, A., & Filus, A. (2016b, 22-25 June). How effective is Baby Triple P for parenting confidence and the mother-infant relationship? . Paper presented at the 8th World Congress of Behavioural and Cognitive Therapies, Melbourne, Australia.

Seah, C. K. F., & Morawska, A. (2016). Does Baby Triple P increase responsive parenting, efficacy and reduce parental stress? A randomized controlled trial of an early parenting intervention. Under review.

 

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How babies and a narrative of recovery might help mothers who experience postpartum psychosis

The role of the baby as both the cause and agent of recovery for women suffering from postpartum psychosis is part of the clinical and research work of Triple P Research Network member Dr Anja Wittkowski.

Two qualitative studies at the centre of this work were presented at the World Congress of Behavioural and Cognitive Therapies in Melbourne last month.

Dr Wittkowski’s research focuses on a time when most women anticipating the arrival of their baby are hoping to feel wonderful. But some may find themselves frightened, confused and, more than likely, sectioned under their country’s relevant Mental Health Act.

Dr Anja Wittkowski

Dr Anja Wittkowski

Rare but rapid onset

“Postpartum psychosis is quite rare, with around one in 1000 mothers giving birth experiencing it,’’ Dr Wittkowski said during a recent visit to UQ’s Parenting and Family Support Centre, following the World Congress. “It usually comes on very quickly within a few days of giving birth and it almost always requires an inpatient admission.

“It is an incredibly significant life event which can make the women who experience it question their very identity. But my impression is that many of these women go on to live normal, fulfilling lives as both women and mothers.’’

Dr Wittkowski said any pregnant woman could be at risk of developing the condition but an underlying bipolar disorder, or a previous postpartum psychosis, appears to increase the risk of experiencing it.

Dr Wittkowski is a senior lecturer in clinical psychology at The University of Manchester, the current Research Director for the Clinical Psychology Doctorate program at The University of Manchester as well as a clinical psychologist at the 10-bed Mother and Baby Unit (MBU) on Andersen Ward at Wythenshawe Hospital operated by the Manchester Mental Health and Social Care Trust.

Mothers who are admitted to Andersen Ward may be experiencing problems such as postnatal depression, postpartum psychosis or an exacerbation of an existing mental health problem, such as psychosis or bipolar affective disorder.

Dr Wittkowski’s first study involved conducting qualitative interviews with 12 women and was aimed at developing a theoretical understanding of recovery from psychosis following childbirth. This study was published in the journal BMC Psychiatry.

“We know from our first study that the first step in recovering from a postpartum psychosis is gaining an initial understanding of what you have experienced,’’ Dr Wittkowski said. “We know someone has a sense of realisation when they ask their friends or family, ‘what did I say, what did I do’, and can’t believe they did what their friends and family are telling them they did.

“Once they realise that they had very unusual (often psychotic) experiences, these women experience a great sense of loss. They had been anticipating that after giving birth they were going to experience the best feeling in the world but the next minute they are frightened and confused.

Losing a piece of themselves

“This period of experiencing acute psychotic symptoms is not viewed by these women as representative of what they are normally like. As part of recovery, they have told us that they had to accept that they have lost a little bit of themselves, such as their sense of security, their knowledge of being a stable persoverticle babyn or just time. But the women we interviewed told us that they used those experiences positively.

“In my clinical experience I can begin to see women recover when they start to develop a narrative about their experiences, partly as a way of explaining to others what happened to them – and why they had to b
e admitted to a psychiatric unit – but mostly so they have a way of explaining those very unusual experiences to themselves.’’

One of the women I worked with expressed this process of acceptance really nicely. She told me that she really liked musical animation. She explained that during her acute illness phase she was found hiding away in her room but singing these songs. She later said to me that singing these songs ‘helped me through the darkest moments in my life’.”

Because of the importance of psychosocial factors in the role of recovery, Dr Wittkowski said the research team asked the women in their first study about the things that had helped their recovery and the women identified that their relationships with family members and mental health staff had been very helpful.

“When these women talked about their relationships with others, one very strong theme emerged: none of these women mentioned their baby,’’ Dr Wittkowski said. “We were thinking about how odd that was and that informed the design of the second study. As the baby is a reason why women become extremely unwell in the first place, we wanted to know about the role of the baby in their recovery from postpartum psychosis.

Mothers who took part in the second qualitative study told us that the baby is central to their recovery and the baby was perceived a facilitator but the baby was also a barrier to recovery. These findings reflected what we had seen in clinical practice on the unit.

“The mothers also told us they felt they had to sacrifice their own wellbeing for the sake of the baby.’’

The second as yet unpublished study underlined the value of the work of the Mother and Baby Unit which centres around mothers’ wellbeing but also encouraging mothers to look after their babies and bond with them.

“We know that by looking after the baby, these women achieve a greater sense of self-confidence which helps their recovery,’’ she said.

Baby Triple P

Dr Wittkowski and fellow researchers are about to embark on a new study in which the Baby Triple P program will be offered at the Mother and Baby Units in Birmingham and Manchester. Funded by a National Institute of Health Research for Patient Benefit grant in the UK, they will be working with women who have been admitted for a range of mental health difficulties, including psychosis, postnatal depression, having thoughts of harming their child, stress, bonding problems, or existing problems, such as OCD, anxiety and/or depression.

“Baby Triple P just fits in so well with what we are doing,’’ Dr Wittkowski said. “When I first came across Baby Triple P I liked the fact that it had two sessions on dealing with the relationship between mother (or parent) and baby, two sessions for coping and building social support and four sessions for skill implementation via phone support.

“It’s really nice that there are four weeks of phone support so we get to see how the women manage the transition from having been on the unit to being back at home.”

“When we ran our mini-pilot, one of the women told me she really liked the idea of knowing that she could ring me after having been discharged from the Mother and Baby Unit.

“The study is a feasibility study looking at the possibility of recruiting women in this setting, whether they would be ok with being randomly allocated to treatment as usual plus the intervention or treatment as usual only and whether we can retain them throughout the study.’’

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Why work might actually be good for you and your chronically ill child, and why you might want to cut yourself some slack

Parents juggling the guilt and pressure of work and family life might be pleased to know research shows keeping down a job is actually good for children.

Income from work can create better outcomes and well-being for children while other research suggests working parents are modelling a positive work ethic for their kids.

Unfortunately, such facts don’t appear to be helping the stress levels of most Australian parents.

In a recent Australian survey, nearly half (47%) of employed men with children under 15 said they felt as if they were always or often rushed or pressed for time. Unsurprisingly, more women (62%) felt the same way.

Despite the advantages that working parents provide for their children, balancing work, family and life in general clearly comes at a cost for parents.

Most of us know we should try to limit the overflow of home life into the workplace and vice-versa. But that’s a lot easier said than done.

Most of the time, parents are often just questioning themselves about whether they are doing the right thing at any given moment, such as missing a child’s doctor’s appointment, or answering that late-night work email.

We all try to make sacrifices and accommodations to keep both worlds afloat. Yet at some point, something on either side has to give, a spill-over called work-family conflict. And this conflict can do harm.

Undoing the gains

When we don’t manage work-family conflict, we risk undoing the gains we might have made by working in the first place by contributing to poorer health and wellbeing for ourselves and our children.

While most parents experience some level of work and family conflict, there are some families who experience much higher levels. Individuals who work longer hours and those who are carers often fall in this category.  What we don’t know is how do these experiences play out in parents who have even more demands and burdens placed upon them because their child is suffering from one or more of Australia’s common chronic illnesses.

The reality is that most chronic conditions require ongoing medical care and management.

And with extra expenses and costs, these parents – more than most – need to work to ensure the best possible outcomes for their children while juggling the needs of being a fulltime carer.

Research shows that chronically ill children whose parents work have statistically better outcomes because their parents can afford to get them to hospital for treatment, for example.

But what kinds of pressures does the work-family dynamic place on these families and do these additional pressures pose a health risk for these parents and their children?

Given the consequences family stress and conflict might be having on chronically ill children, along with the fact that childhood diagnoses of asthma, diabetes and eczema are on the rise, the need to understand parents’ experiences has become ever more pressing.

In order to understand the impact that work-family conflict might be having on families of chronically ill children, we are asking all parents of children aged between 5-12 years to complete a short questionnaire, regardless of whether they are caring for a chronically ill child or not.

We hope to determine whether parents of chronically ill children have higher levels of work and family conflict than parents of healthy children and to examine the impact of work and family conflict on the quality of life of both parents and children.  If you would like to contribute to this important research click here.

 

Social media a force for families

Social media and electronic gaming strategies can have an extremely positive influence on the lives of impoverished families, a study of The University of Queensland’s Triple P Online program has found.

A version of Triple P Online, the web-based version ofUQ’s Triple P – Positive Parenting Program, was ramped up with social media and gaming smarts and made available to disadvantaged families in Los Angeles.

Triple P founder Professor Matt Sanders said the enhanced version – called Triple P Online Community – was designed to encourage parents to participate in the program and share knowledge about what they had learnt.

He said the study included 155 disadvantaged high-risk parents in Los Angeles.

“Of these, 76 per cent had a family annual income of less than $US15,000, 41 per cent of parents had been incarcerated, 38 per cent were in drug and/or alcohol treatment and 24 per cent had a child removed due to maltreatment,” Professor Sanders said.

The study, led by Dr Susan Love of California State University Northridge, set out to test if gaming and social media could successfully engage this traditionally hard-to-reach population, and show benefits to both parents and children.

“The program’s 50 per cent retention rate of participants was extraordinary, given the stress the participating families would have been under just to manage daily life,” Professor Sanders said.

“More importantly, both parents and their children showed improvements likely to lead to better developmental outcomes for those children and potentially more stability and less stress in the lives of the parents.

“Participation in evidence-based parenting programs has also been shown to reduce risk factors for child maltreatment.

“A program able to engage highly vulnerable families and produce outcomes such as these shows just how important it is that researchers think creatively when it comes to finding solutions for families.”

Triple P Online Community was designed by Dr Love, former UQ-based project manager Marianne Maurange and Triple P authors at UQ’s Parenting and Family Support Centre, as well as researchers at the University of South Carolina and the Oregon Research Institute in the US.

Dr Love said one of the most rewarding aspects of the study was finding that parents in the Triple P Online Community actively encouraged each other.

“Parents in the study shared parenting tips and strategies, not just with each other, but with other family members, their friends, teachers and day care workers,’’ Dr Love said.

“They also were far more engaged than the typical social media audience, far exceeding the 90-9-1 social media rule – the idea that 90 per cent of people watch but don’t contribute to social media, nine per cent contribute occasionally and one per cent of users participate a lot.

“In our study, 50 per cent of our parents ‘lurked’ online, 32 per cent shared occasionally and 17 per cent shared frequently.’’

The study is online in the journal Child Abuse and Neglect.

Meta-analysis finds parenting interventions work best in helping children with disruptive behaviour problems

A meta-analysis published in the journal Paediatrics has identified the critical role that parents play in interventions aimed at helping children with disruptive behaviour problems and suggests policy makers should take note.

US researchers led by Dr Richard Epstein found that parenting interventions work better either on their own or in combination with other interventions when compared to child-only interventions for children with disruptive problems, the review of previously published studies found.

Results from the meta-analysis also show that all intervention categories were more effective than the treatment as usual/control category.

The authors of Psychosocial Interventions for Child Disruptive Behaviors: A Meta-analysis write:

“Our meta-analytic model suggested that interventions categorized as multi-component interventions and interventions with only a parent component were approximately equivalent in their expected effectiveness (43% probability of being best treatment), whereas interventions with only a child component were estimated to be less effective (14% probability of being best).’’

While existing reviews report positive outcomes for cognitive-behavioral therapy,  behaviour management, and parenting interventions, either alone or in combination with family-based approaches, the authors suggest that evidence for interventions with a child-only component was limited because of the small number of studies and that the estimate for child-only interventions was imprecise. They continue:

“Given recent trends indicating reduced use of behavioural health services and increasing use of psychotropic medications, especially for children with disruptive behaviour disorders, we believe these findings have important policy and practice implications.’’

Triple P founder and director of the University of Queensland’s Parenting and Family Support Centre, Professor Matt Sanders, said the research added to the body of evidence highlighting the importance of parent-focused interventions in treating child disruptive behaviours, including Triple P.

A meta-analysis of more than 100 studies of Triple P has demonstrated positive impacts for child and parent outcomes.

“The current study suggests to parents, practitioners and policy makers that parent interventions may be the most effective means of helping children with disruptive behaviour problems. It points out that these kinds of problems are among the most common child and adolescent psychiatric disorders and are associated with significant impairment,’’ Professor Sanders said.

As the study authors suggest:

“Policymakers may consider incentivising psychosocial interventions that include a parent component to increase the delivery of interventions that have the greatest potential to improve care for these vulnerable children and families.’’

To reach parents in a culturally sensitive way we first need to listen to the local community

More than 90 per cent of the world’s children and families live in low- and middle-income countries.

So how do we reach them in a culturally sensitive way?

In our project in Panama, we tested the efficacy of Triple P Discussion Groups with 108 parents from six high-risk, low-resource neighborhoods.

Even though the intervention was delivered in its original form, “intuitive” cultural adaptations took place during delivery.

For example, we started sessions with an ice breaker activity, we worked with local facilitators and used local jargon when giving examples.

I come from a family of social workers in Panama and so my passion has always been to support families living in poverty.  But to help them in a respectful way, I firstly needed to understand what is it like to live and raise a child in a high-risk neighbourhood.

I also wanted others around the world to understand the experiences of families living in poverty.  I was pretty sure that images would speak louder than any words.

The idea then was to film a short documentary in collaboration with two mothers from San Joaquin.

San Joaquin is a high-risk community in Panama City recognized as the epicenter of violence and home to the deadliest gangs in the country.  This 10-minute documentary follows the life of Cecilia and Dora, two mothers who also took part in the Triple P intervention.  It’s interesting to see how both mothers show great resilience in their discourse even though they are facing daily adversity.

Filming this documentary made me understand the importance of using collaborative approaches to increase engagement of community members with new interventions.  This documentary allowed me to give voice to mothers who would otherwise not have any platform to speak up.  They felt as if they were active participants disseminating results from the project and became the main advocates for it.  Participatory research such as this increases ownership, sustainability and ensures interventions fit local needs and culture.

Using this work in Panama as a case example, and in collaboration with other researchers at the Parenting and Family Support Centre at the University of Queensland, I’m currently involved in developing and testing models to approach new communities in a collaborative, participatory way.

We feel it’s important that programs are sustainable once they have been introduced into a new community. In order to do this, we’re exploring models or ways to listen to the community and learn about its local history.

By doing this, we hope to understand how local people who want to bring about change in those communities would like to deliver the program, rather than imposing change from the top down.

We are developing guidelines to conduct cultural engagement in a systematic manner.  These guidelines will provide “conceptual lenses” to practitioners and researchers delivering and implementing Triple P in any context or culture worldwide, such as with families in low- and middle-income countries, refugee parents and Indigenous communities in Australia.

And in turn, we hope to give the voice of change back to the community.

Note: All participants provided written informed consent for the dissemination of this footage for academic purposes.

For more information on the RCT:  Mejia, A., Calam, R., & Sanders, M.R. (2015).  A pilot randomized controlled trial of a brief parenting intervention in low resource settings in Panama. Prevention Science. DOI: 10.1007/s11121-015-0551-1

 

The author with the subject of awe.

The Grandma Hypothesis: We’ve got more resources to draw from than the rest of the animal kingdom but that doesn’t help family conflict

We often hear the old adage, “it takes a village to raise a child”, yet with increasing independence, geographical movement, and isolation how true is this? Interesting data out of the US shows that we are indeed more isolated than ever before, with up Windows 10 Product Keyto 40 percent or more of all households containing a single a href=”http://www.infodouane.nl”>parajumpers jas heren occupant in cities such as San Francisco, Denver and Seattle.

What is surprising about this is that as humans we know we are

, meaning that we have evolved as a species to work in groups, where a broad range of individuals helps support the mother and father in raising offspring. And you can see this not only in humans, but clearly in other mammalian species, particularly with our closest relatives the chimpanzees and apes where we share up to 97-99 per cent of our DNA.

Gorillas are actually my all-time favourite animal. I fell absolutely in love with them when I watched David Attenborough’s documentary Life on Earth where he comes face-to-face with the mighty silverback and his family. The episode left a lasting impression on me. And in 2013 I was able to go on a trip of lifetime and realise my dream of going gorilla trekking in Rwanda with my wife.

Visiting the gorillas involved a mighty trek through the Virunga Mountains, one of the last remaining places on earth you can see these incredible animals. When I came face to face with the silverback and his family the thing that immediately struck me is how similar we are. Our toenails, thumbs, and most amazingly our eyes – there is no doubt we share a common ancestor. The very next thing I noticed is how the gorilla family or “troop” is so similar to ours. They need a family in order to both survive and thrive. There was dad – the silverback, a number of females (the mothers), and of course the very cute baby gorillas. But where was grandma?

Why Grandma is important

Indeed, this is a defining aspect of the human species: As adults we live much longer after our ability to reproduce finishes, whereas when other species reach the end of reproduction they very shortly pass on. This means, as humans, we have a very long post-reproductive period – indeed we can live for up to 40-50 years longer. And this isparajumpers jas ugo where grandma becomes very important.

The grandmother hypothesis suggests that grandma involvement in family life helps increase her daughter’s fertility and chance of the grandchildren surviving. Indeed, data shows that if the grandmother is present in the family, in some cases it doubles the chances of more children being born. Why? Well, all of a sudden mum has somebody at home to help provide childcare to her other children, whilst she looks after her newborn.

In Australia, more than one million children receive regular child care from their grandparents. That’s one in every four children. On average grandparents provide 12 hours of care per week to their grandkids aged between 0-12 years.

Grandparent involvement in childcare is a very altruistic and compassionate act. Indeed, grandparents often give up some of their working hours, social events, and hobbies to help look after their grandchildren. Grandparent involvement also helps mothers re-enter the workforce, increase family income, and help stimulate economic growth. However, providing regular child care can come at cost.

When grandparents provide regular child care it is not uncommon for  tension, conflict, and disagreement to occur between grandparents and parents, which can negatively impact child development.

For example, researchers have consistently found that parents dislike unsolicited parenting advice from grandparents, and that it contributes to poorer Lenovo IdeaPad V570 AC Adapter grandparent-parent relationship quality.

Despite grandparents being aware of this, they find it difficult to refrain from providing parenting advice, and can struggle with accepting parenting decisions. This of course can lead to family conflict, which in turn, can adversely impact the psychbaby gorillaological adjustment, and parenting practices, of both grandparents and parents. Family conflict and tension can also negatively impact Dell Latitude E6500 AC Adapter children’s social, emotional and behavioural development.

Of course this is not true for all grandparents and parents, as many get along just great, but when tension and family conflict exist between grandparents and parents it can become very difficult for all parties involved.

So how can we help grandparents and parents in this critical and important role of co-parenting?

Evidence-based parenting programs are one of the best ways to help, with meta-analyses showing that parenting programs positively influence child, parent and family outcomes. However, until recently there was no specific evidence-based parenting program yet modified for grandparents.

The Triple P-Positive Parenting Program, in a world’s first, designed and developed a program specifically for grandparents providing regular child care called Grandparent Triple P. And to point out any potential conflict of interest, I must advise that I am a co-author of the program along with Triple P founder, Professor Matt Sanders.

Grandparent Triple P

Grandparent Triple P is a nine-week group program and has three aims: 1) provide a refresher course on parenting strategies, 2) p
rovide communication strategies to enhance the parent-grandparent relationship, and 3) provide coping skills for grandparents to manage the stress of providing regular child care.

The program has been evaluated in two randomised controlled trials, one in Australia with 54 grandparents, and one in Hong Kong with 56 grandparents.

Based on both evaluations the program was found to help improve grandparent confidence, reduce stress, and most importantly, improve childhood behavioural outcomes. Importantly, the Australian trial also found it helped improve parent-grandparent relationship satisfaction.

Researchers are now looking at making a shorter version of the program.

So as humans we are lucky to have grandparents. Unfortunately the beautiful gorilla troop didn’t have a grandma around to help with the upbringing of their offspring. We have been giving evolutionary advantage, which we often do not recognise and acknowledge.

Twitter: @JamesNKirby

 

 

 

Innovation scholarships announced for Triple P

A new research initiative at The University of Queensland, the Triple P Innovation Precinct, has announced four scholarship positions.

The TPIP is an activity of the Parenting and Family Support Centre, led by Professor Matt Sanders, the founder of the Triple P – Positive Parenting Program.

The TPIP will explore how Triple P can be applied to address some unique and interesting challenges.child-beach

Projects will explore how innovation in a system of child and family interventions (Triple P) can be applied to such things as improving the way people interact with the natural environment and the value of parenting programs in developing countries. Read more