porn

It may be awkward, but we need to talk to kids about porn

The ease of access to pornography has changed rapidly. The stash of hidden magazines you might remember from your youth is vastly different from the sexually explicit content children can be exposed to today. And parents often underestimate the extent of their child’s exposure to online porn.

International estimates of the proportion of children and young people who have viewed porn vary, from around 43% to 99% in older age groups. Exposure to online porn often begins around the age of ten or 11, and increases with age.

Research suggests young porn users are more likely to have unrealistic attitudes about sexual activity and relationships. They tend to be more accepting of stereotyped gender roles.

While young porn users often have a more relaxed and permissive attitude to sex, they may not have a clear understanding about the importance of consent, pleasure, sexual health or safety in their sexual relationships.

The benefits of having open, clear, factual discussions with children about online media and digital relationships are clear. Children who receive sex and relationship education from an early age are more likely to:

  • understand and accept physical and emotional changes with confidence
  • feel positive about their bodies
  • appreciate and accept individual differences
  • make informed and responsible sexual decisions later in life
  • feel good about themselves and their gender
  • be capable of communicating about sexual matters
  • understand what constitutes appropriate and inappropriate behaviour.

They’re also less likely to be exploited or sexually abused.

So we need to talk to our kids about sex, and porn, without sending them cringing back to their bedrooms.

Overcoming the barriers

Your own views about porn and respectful relationships are likely to influence how you feel about discussing the issue with your children.

But regardless of whether your view is that consensual adult porn is a normal and enjoyable part of adults’ sex lives, or an exploitative practice, the most important thing you need to do is to keep open the channels of communication with your children.

Discuss your family’s values and beliefs as well as the continuum of beliefs that may be held in the community. In response to a young person’s exposure to material online, for example, a parent could say:

I can see you were a bit worried about what you saw this morning on the computer. There were some pretty explicit sex acts shown there.

What’s important to remember is that people have different ideas about pleasure and how they express their sexuality, and that may not agree with our values and how you or I view things.

I’d really like to hear what you thought about it and how you felt…

Children are more likely to keep the communication lines open if you are being honest and truthful.

Dealing with young children

Young children under the age of seven or eight are unlikely to understand the meaning of any pornography that they see.

At this age, the best approach is to focus on accurate and open information about bodies being private, and on consent, personal space and safety. You don’t have to go into great detail about pornography; you can tell them that sex is an adult or older person’s activity.

But don’t avoid or ignore their questions if they ask. Keep conversations brief, factual and honest, and use correct terminology for body parts.

Monitor your child’s use of electronic devices and the internet, but also let your child know you are always happy to talk with them. Tell them that if they see something in public – and the internet is public – to let you know.

Older children and adolescents

It’s normal for young people to want to learn about sex and relationships, and they will access online media for all forms of learning. Monitoring what older children and adolescents access is important, but open, honest communication is even more critical.

If you’ve laid the groundwork, as your child gets older and becomes more interested in the topic, it will be easier to have conversations about sex, what’s good and not so good about it, and about portrayals of sex, relationships and sexual identity in the media.

There is no one right age for these discussions, but you’ll want to tailor your conversations so they’re age-appropriate. If your four-year-old comes home and tells you that Johnny has two mummies, for instance, you might use it as an opportunity to discuss how families are different.

If you notice your 11-year-old giggling at the cover of a women’s magazine’s “ten tips for better sex”, take the time to engage in a conversation about what they find amusing or uncomfortable.

If your child is either purposefully or accidentally accessing porn, rather than shaming them or getting angry, talk calmly to them about what they saw, how it made them feel, and the implications of what they saw.

Regardless of your own views about porn, it’s important to let children know that what is portrayed is not reflective of most relationships. The actors and the sex acts may not represent reality and may present a simplified and incorrect – and sometimes non-consensual – image of sex and relationships.

Note that any material involving sexual activity with or between people under 18 years of age may constitute child abuse material. To a child or young person, these actors may look like peers. So it’s important to discuss age, power and consent.

When parents are able to respond to children’s curiosity and talk about porn, they can help young people develop safety skills and recognise the importance of their own sexual health and well-being.

If you think your child may be excessively viewing pornography, viewing violent or degrading material, or not processing the fiction of the content, you may want to seek the advice of a sexual health provider, such as state-based family planning clinics.


This article was co-authored by Melanie Grabski from True: Relationships and Reproductive Health.

This article was originally published on The Conversation. Read the original article.

San Diego delivery of Triple P a powerful illustration of how a population approach can work

An evaluation of the delivery of the Jewish Family Service of San Diego’s Positive Parenting Program in a low-income, Spanish-speaking community is a powerful illustration of how a population approach can improve the lives of children and their families, Triple P founder, Professor Matt Sanders, says.

jfs logoThe Triple P – Positive Parenting Program was chosen by the County of San Diego to promote social and emotional wellness for children and families living in at-risk, low socio-economic communities with a high concentration of ethnic minorities.

The County provided Jewish Family Service with a Mental Health Services Act Prevention and Early Intervention Grant to provide Levels 2, 3 and 4 of Triple P through the delivery of Triple P Seminars, Individual (Primary Care Triple P) and Group Triple P.

JFS conducts regular evaluations of its implementation of Triple P. In 2013-14, its evaluation showed significant improvements for the majority of parents and children who participated in the program.

While change occurred across a range of child and parent outcomes, the largest improvements came following Group Triple P for children in the clinical range for conduct problems and social, emotional and behavioural concerns, and for parents’ whose self-reports placed them at clinical levels of depression. In both examples, most parents and children in the clinical range moved into the normal range.

Triple P founder, Professor of Clinical Psychology and Director of The University of Queensland’s Parenting and Family Support Centre, Matt Sanders, said the fact that JFS was able to reach such large numbers of families and record extremely high rates of program completion and satisfaction in a predominantly low-income, Spanish-speaking community was extremely rewarding to see.

“The JFS implementation model demonstrates just what can be achieved by following good practice in program delivery,’’ Professor Sanders said.

“It shows that quality parent education can benefit all cultures and economic environments. Parents have a universal need for support and this evaluation shows those needs can be met and that barriers to services can be addressed by dedication and creativity.’’

Mandate for early intervention and prevention support

Director of Positive Parenting for JFS in San Diego, Lea Bush, said the Triple P mix of light-touch seminars combined with more intensive programs for families with greater levels of need provided an ideal way for JFS to fulfill its mandate to provide early intervention and prevention support services for families across the targeted population.

The JFS evaluation, conducted by consultant Susan Hedges, shows uniformly large effect sizes for children in the clinical range of social, emotional and behavioural problems with the majority of these children moving into the normal range after their parents participated in Group Triple P.

From this group of families, of the 86 children assessed to be in the abnormal range for conduct problems, 74 per cent (or 64 children) improved following Group Triple P, with 63 per cent (54 children) moving into the normal range. Similar levels of improvement were recorded for children with abnormal levels of emotional problems (76 and 60 per cent), hyperactivity (88 and 81 per cent), peer relationship problems (72 and 51 per cent) and total difficulties (88 and 70 per cent).

Replicating clinical trial results, JFS parents’ depressive symptoms improved following Group Triple P across a range of functioning from mild to severe. Eighty-two per cent of parents with mild to moderate levels of depression moved to the normal range, while 67 per cent of parents with severe to extremely severe depression moved to the normal range.

High retention rates of parents

The evaluation also shows high retention rates of parents across the range of Triple P programs delivered with very high levels of parent satisfaction.

Ms Bush said the delivery of Triple P Seminars in elementary and pre-schools across San Diego provided an ideal initial access point into the community.

“Parents really enjoy the low-barrier, easy engagement model of Triple P Seminars because there are not too many expectations placed on them to participate or interact,’’ Ms Bush said. “We provide seminars directly at preschool and elementary school sites and ask that parents attend all three sessions of the seminar series to receive a ‘completion certificate’.

“As needed or desired by parents, we then enrol families from Level 2 into Level 4 Group or Level 3 Individual programs. It works very well because parents learn in the seminars that this is a safe place to learn about ways to improve their children’s behavior and they develop trust and rapport with other members of the preschool or community. They then become more willing to engage in higher levels of service when necessary.’’

Over the 12-month period, JFS Parent Educators delivered to 2831 parents or other individuals such as school or child care staff who attended at least one session of Triple P. At least 3500 children were estimated as benefitting.

Since 2009, Triple P has reached an estimated 10,262 adults in San Diego, benefitting an around 19,972 children in the County.

A vast number of sites are served by the JFS program annually, with more than 100 sites reached each year for the past two years, including Head Start centers.

Ms Bush said the organisation went to great lengths to remove any potential barriers to parents attending programs, providing incentives ranging from free babysitting, snacks, laundry soap, transportation and children’s books.

“Our parent education staff are really empowered to make relationships directly with the sites they serve, so they get to know the staff, the parents, the teachers and use those relationships to compel attendance by as many parents as possible,’’ Ms Bush said.

“All our staff are what we call “para-professional” or “peer-based” staff who were hired for their ability to connect with the community. This is another hallmark of how we are able to develop rapport.’’

Copies of the report are available upon request from Ms Bush, Director of Positive Parenting at Jewish Family Service of San Diego, leab@jfssd.org

‘Now, when there is a problem, I just breathe and I deal with the problem with no anger. This is good. For me, I think the program has changed my life.’

 

Evidence of cultural acceptability in research trials is one thing.

But a video produced by a local authority in the United Kingdom which is delivering Triple P Seminars, Triple P Discussion Groups and Group Triple to parents is a convincing argument for the way the program can help parents across all sections of the community.

Depicting a group of women participating in an Arabic-speaking Group Triple P session in Brighton and Hove, the video is also a great illustration of the cultural acceptability of the program.

Arabic-speaking and Triple P International-trained and accredited Triple P practitioner Kafa Atar, who leads the group in Brighton and Hove through her work with the local authority’s Ethnic Minority Achievement Service, has lived in five Middle Eastern countries, including Iraq for the most part, but also in Syria for two years.

She is passionate about helping families settle in the United Kingdom from these countries and says that timing is everything when it comes to offering parenting support, following a thorough assessment of needs and readiness.

Kafa says Triple P can help parents negotiate the sometimes tricky transition to school. But it also can help families negotiate their new life.

“For me, it’s for two purposes,” Kafa says in the video. “It’s to bridge the gap between two cultures. Our parenting style is very different . . . We are scared of English culture.”

In the video Kafa says that addressing bad behaviour is all about establishing routines. Establishing good routines can have an effect on a child’s learning as well as having an impact on their lives at school.

Kafa says the use of praise is not common in Middle Eastern parenting culture but through the group sessions, parents learn that it can be a powerful tool.

Parents participating in the video also provide a great illustration of how they are now dealing with life now.

“Now, when there is a problem, I just breathe and I deal with the problem with no anger,” says mother Areej Al-Jwait, from Iraq. “Now they (the children) become more honest and they come to me and they tell me the problem without any fear. And I will be quiet and I breathe and I deal with the problem. This is good. For me . . . I think the program has changed my life.”

EMAS team leader Sarah Berliner said EMAS also delivers Triple P programs in Polish, Chinese, Pashto and have just trained staff for Bengali and Oromiffa-speaking families.

“It is really powerful and meaningful work and makes such a difference to the outcomes for the pupils and their families,” Ms Berliner said.

The video was produced by independent UK producer Cathy Maxwell, who volunteered her services for EMAS.

 

matt masterclass brighton

Uplifting, gratifying and professionally rewarding: Triple P Masterclasses in the UK, Ireland and Germany show that the program is in good hands

For someone who grew up in a boys school famous for turning out All Blacks, last weekend’s Rugby World Cup final was a personal highlight of my recent trip to the United Kingdom.

But the professional highlight would have to be the Masterclasses I felt privileged to deliver to Triple P practitioners around the UK, Ireland and in Berlin over the past few weeks.

The energy in the rooms for individual Masterclasses might not have matched Twickenham Stadium with 80,000 fans for the final, but for me collectively they came close.

If participating in Masterclasses is like taking the pulse of Triple P implementation in the community, then the program is in great hands.

There were strong numbers at the masterclasses, such as in Brighton, pictured above. Of course, this is personally satisfying but strong attendance also signals that good local implementation of Triple P is in place, that practitioners value the program and obviously see a great fit for the families they’re seeking to help.

Many of the practitioners who came to the Masterclasses are achieving outstanding outcomes with some very complex families.

We had some excellent question and answer sessions where practitioners had the opportunity to ask me the most difficult clinical questions they could think of.

Working with complex families

These questions certainly kept me on my toes and highlighted once again the extremely diverse ways that organisations and practitioners are using Triple P to help a great range of families, such as parents in prison, families with complex mental health problems and those with learning disabilities.

In Germany, there was intense interest for the German version of Triple P Online.

During meetings I tried to convey the immense value to communities in having a well-trained and supported workforce to deliver evidence-based practices such as Triple P.

It was also great to see the team from Falkirk, pictured below, with their award for Triple P delivery and use of the Peer Assisted Supervision and Support (PASS) implementation model.

PASS draws on Triple P’s self-regulatory model and draws support from the use of peers rather than expert mentoring. The idea is to empower practitioners and increase sustainability of program delivery within organisations.

Triple P and the Psychology of Parenting Project in Scotland

Falkirk was one of the pilot sites for the Psychology of Parenting Project, which has embedded the delivery of Triple P and The Incredible Years programs within a suite of complementary training activities and organisational supports throughout Scotland.

Thanks to everyone involved for making my Masterclass series such an enjoyable and professional rewarding experience.

Hopefully more local authorities will see the true value of adopting the full multilevel system of Triple P within a public health framework.

falkirk pic

Meta-analysis finds parenting interventions work best in helping children with disruptive behaviour problems

A meta-analysis published in the journal Paediatrics has identified the critical role that parents play in interventions aimed at helping children with disruptive behaviour problems and suggests policy makers should take note.

US researchers led by Dr Richard Epstein found that parenting interventions work better either on their own or in combination with other interventions when compared to child-only interventions for children with disruptive problems, the review of previously published studies found.

Results from the meta-analysis also show that all intervention categories were more effective than the treatment as usual/control category.

The authors of Psychosocial Interventions for Child Disruptive Behaviors: A Meta-analysis write:

“Our meta-analytic model suggested that interventions categorized as multi-component interventions and interventions with only a parent component were approximately equivalent in their expected effectiveness (43% probability of being best treatment), whereas interventions with only a child component were estimated to be less effective (14% probability of being best).’’

While existing reviews report positive outcomes for cognitive-behavioral therapy,  behaviour management, and parenting interventions, either alone or in combination with family-based approaches, the authors suggest that evidence for interventions with a child-only component was limited because of the small number of studies and that the estimate for child-only interventions was imprecise. They continue:

“Given recent trends indicating reduced use of behavioural health services and increasing use of psychotropic medications, especially for children with disruptive behaviour disorders, we believe these findings have important policy and practice implications.’’

Triple P founder and director of the University of Queensland’s Parenting and Family Support Centre, Professor Matt Sanders, said the research added to the body of evidence highlighting the importance of parent-focused interventions in treating child disruptive behaviours, including Triple P.

A meta-analysis of more than 100 studies of Triple P has demonstrated positive impacts for child and parent outcomes.

“The current study suggests to parents, practitioners and policy makers that parent interventions may be the most effective means of helping children with disruptive behaviour problems. It points out that these kinds of problems are among the most common child and adolescent psychiatric disorders and are associated with significant impairment,’’ Professor Sanders said.

As the study authors suggest:

“Policymakers may consider incentivising psychosocial interventions that include a parent component to increase the delivery of interventions that have the greatest potential to improve care for these vulnerable children and families.’’

To reach parents in a culturally sensitive way we first need to listen to the local community

More than 90 per cent of the world’s children and families live in low- and middle-income countries.

So how do we reach them in a culturally sensitive way?

In our project in Panama, we tested the efficacy of Triple P Discussion Groups with 108 parents from six high-risk, low-resource neighborhoods.

Even though the intervention was delivered in its original form, “intuitive” cultural adaptations took place during delivery.

For example, we started sessions with an ice breaker activity, we worked with local facilitators and used local jargon when giving examples.

I come from a family of social workers in Panama and so my passion has always been to support families living in poverty.  But to help them in a respectful way, I firstly needed to understand what is it like to live and raise a child in a high-risk neighbourhood.

I also wanted others around the world to understand the experiences of families living in poverty.  I was pretty sure that images would speak louder than any words.

The idea then was to film a short documentary in collaboration with two mothers from San Joaquin.

San Joaquin is a high-risk community in Panama City recognized as the epicenter of violence and home to the deadliest gangs in the country.  This 10-minute documentary follows the life of Cecilia and Dora, two mothers who also took part in the Triple P intervention.  It’s interesting to see how both mothers show great resilience in their discourse even though they are facing daily adversity.

Filming this documentary made me understand the importance of using collaborative approaches to increase engagement of community members with new interventions.  This documentary allowed me to give voice to mothers who would otherwise not have any platform to speak up.  They felt as if they were active participants disseminating results from the project and became the main advocates for it.  Participatory research such as this increases ownership, sustainability and ensures interventions fit local needs and culture.

Using this work in Panama as a case example, and in collaboration with other researchers at the Parenting and Family Support Centre at the University of Queensland, I’m currently involved in developing and testing models to approach new communities in a collaborative, participatory way.

We feel it’s important that programs are sustainable once they have been introduced into a new community. In order to do this, we’re exploring models or ways to listen to the community and learn about its local history.

By doing this, we hope to understand how local people who want to bring about change in those communities would like to deliver the program, rather than imposing change from the top down.

We are developing guidelines to conduct cultural engagement in a systematic manner.  These guidelines will provide “conceptual lenses” to practitioners and researchers delivering and implementing Triple P in any context or culture worldwide, such as with families in low- and middle-income countries, refugee parents and Indigenous communities in Australia.

And in turn, we hope to give the voice of change back to the community.

Note: All participants provided written informed consent for the dissemination of this footage for academic purposes.

For more information on the RCT:  Mejia, A., Calam, R., & Sanders, M.R. (2015).  A pilot randomized controlled trial of a brief parenting intervention in low resource settings in Panama. Prevention Science. DOI: 10.1007/s11121-015-0551-1

 

Inaugural inductees Kelston boys high school

Proud rugby school famous for turning out All Blacks takes Triple P founder back to where it all began

A New Zealand boys high school famous for its connection to the mighty All Blacks has recognised The University of Queensland’s Professor Matt Sanders among its first distinguished alumni.

Professor Sanders is the founder of the Triple P – Positive Parenting Program, a Professor of Clinical Psychology and director of UQ’s Parenting and Family Support Centre. He has published more than 300 research papers.

However, as a very young student at Kelston Boys High School, in West Auckland, Professor Sanders says he was not one of the top academic achievers.

“The key for me was that my very early academic career wasn’t seen by the school as a limitation. I had one teacher in particular who got me aside and basically told me, ‘come on, you can do it’,’’ Professor Sanders said.

“For me it reinforces the idea that people should not make too many judgments too soon about young people and what they are capable of if they have good family and school support.’’

Professor Sanders (pictured left in picture above), who attended Kelston from 1966-70, was recognised at Keltson’s inaugural alumni for his achievements in academia alongside the chief executive of the Pascoe Group, David Norman (1962-1965, second from left), for his services to business; current New Zealand Sevens rugby union captain, DJ Forbes (1997-2000, second from right), for services to sport; and former New Zealand rugby league captain, Duane Mann (1979-1983, right), for services to the community and sport.

Kelston principal Brian Evans said the school was honoured to have someone of the calibre of Prof Sanders as one of its first distinguished alumni.

“Professor Sanders’ work and achievements speak for themselves and he is a very proud Kelstonian and an inspiration for our current students on what can be achieved with such dedication,’’ Mr Evans said.

“It was a wonderful evening for our old boys and a great celebration of what great things our ex-students go on to achieve.’’

Kelston Boys High School in West Auckland is highly regarded for the quality of its rugby program, with former All Blacks coach Graham Henry a former principal of the school, and for its support of Maori and Pacific Island families.

Professor Sanders graduated from Kelston to enrol at University of Auckland where he completed three degrees, a Bachelor of Arts, a Master of Arts and a Dip Ed in Psychology before starting his PhD thesis which was the genesis of Triple P.

He then transferred to The University of Queensland where his completed his doctorate.

 

The author with the subject of awe.

The Grandma Hypothesis: We’ve got more resources to draw from than the rest of the animal kingdom but that doesn’t help family conflict

We often hear the old adage, “it takes a village to raise a child”, yet with increasing independence, geographical movement, and isolation how true is this? Interesting data out of the US shows that we are indeed more isolated than ever before, with up Windows 10 Product Keyto 40 percent or more of all households containing a single a href=”http://www.infodouane.nl”>parajumpers jas heren occupant in cities such as San Francisco, Denver and Seattle.

What is surprising about this is that as humans we know we are

, meaning that we have evolved as a species to work in groups, where a broad range of individuals helps support the mother and father in raising offspring. And you can see this not only in humans, but clearly in other mammalian species, particularly with our closest relatives the chimpanzees and apes where we share up to 97-99 per cent of our DNA.

Gorillas are actually my all-time favourite animal. I fell absolutely in love with them when I watched David Attenborough’s documentary Life on Earth where he comes face-to-face with the mighty silverback and his family. The episode left a lasting impression on me. And in 2013 I was able to go on a trip of lifetime and realise my dream of going gorilla trekking in Rwanda with my wife.

Visiting the gorillas involved a mighty trek through the Virunga Mountains, one of the last remaining places on earth you can see these incredible animals. When I came face to face with the silverback and his family the thing that immediately struck me is how similar we are. Our toenails, thumbs, and most amazingly our eyes – there is no doubt we share a common ancestor. The very next thing I noticed is how the gorilla family or “troop” is so similar to ours. They need a family in order to both survive and thrive. There was dad – the silverback, a number of females (the mothers), and of course the very cute baby gorillas. But where was grandma?

Why Grandma is important

Indeed, this is a defining aspect of the human species: As adults we live much longer after our ability to reproduce finishes, whereas when other species reach the end of reproduction they very shortly pass on. This means, as humans, we have a very long post-reproductive period – indeed we can live for up to 40-50 years longer. And this isparajumpers jas ugo where grandma becomes very important.

The grandmother hypothesis suggests that grandma involvement in family life helps increase her daughter’s fertility and chance of the grandchildren surviving. Indeed, data shows that if the grandmother is present in the family, in some cases it doubles the chances of more children being born. Why? Well, all of a sudden mum has somebody at home to help provide childcare to her other children, whilst she looks after her newborn.

In Australia, more than one million children receive regular child care from their grandparents. That’s one in every four children. On average grandparents provide 12 hours of care per week to their grandkids aged between 0-12 years.

Grandparent involvement in childcare is a very altruistic and compassionate act. Indeed, grandparents often give up some of their working hours, social events, and hobbies to help look after their grandchildren. Grandparent involvement also helps mothers re-enter the workforce, increase family income, and help stimulate economic growth. However, providing regular child care can come at cost.

When grandparents provide regular child care it is not uncommon for  tension, conflict, and disagreement to occur between grandparents and parents, which can negatively impact child development.

For example, researchers have consistently found that parents dislike unsolicited parenting advice from grandparents, and that it contributes to poorer Lenovo IdeaPad V570 AC Adapter grandparent-parent relationship quality.

Despite grandparents being aware of this, they find it difficult to refrain from providing parenting advice, and can struggle with accepting parenting decisions. This of course can lead to family conflict, which in turn, can adversely impact the psychbaby gorillaological adjustment, and parenting practices, of both grandparents and parents. Family conflict and tension can also negatively impact Dell Latitude E6500 AC Adapter children’s social, emotional and behavioural development.

Of course this is not true for all grandparents and parents, as many get along just great, but when tension and family conflict exist between grandparents and parents it can become very difficult for all parties involved.

So how can we help grandparents and parents in this critical and important role of co-parenting?

Evidence-based parenting programs are one of the best ways to help, with meta-analyses showing that parenting programs positively influence child, parent and family outcomes. However, until recently there was no specific evidence-based parenting program yet modified for grandparents.

The Triple P-Positive Parenting Program, in a world’s first, designed and developed a program specifically for grandparents providing regular child care called Grandparent Triple P. And to point out any potential conflict of interest, I must advise that I am a co-author of the program along with Triple P founder, Professor Matt Sanders.

Grandparent Triple P

Grandparent Triple P is a nine-week group program and has three aims: 1) provide a refresher course on parenting strategies, 2) p
rovide communication strategies to enhance the parent-grandparent relationship, and 3) provide coping skills for grandparents to manage the stress of providing regular child care.

The program has been evaluated in two randomised controlled trials, one in Australia with 54 grandparents, and one in Hong Kong with 56 grandparents.

Based on both evaluations the program was found to help improve grandparent confidence, reduce stress, and most importantly, improve childhood behavioural outcomes. Importantly, the Australian trial also found it helped improve parent-grandparent relationship satisfaction.

Researchers are now looking at making a shorter version of the program.

So as humans we are lucky to have grandparents. Unfortunately the beautiful gorilla troop didn’t have a grandma around to help with the upbringing of their offspring. We have been giving evolutionary advantage, which we often do not recognise and acknowledge.

Twitter: @JamesNKirby